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Freitag, 21. September 2018

Update am 23.2.2018: 

Ergebnisse der FATF-Tagung zu Iran:

  1. Iran bleibt auf der schwarzen Liste der FATF, bis der "Action Plan" vollständig erfüllt ist. Im Juni 2018 trifft sich die FATF erneut.
  2. Die Gegen-Maßnahmen der FATF gegen Iran bleiben weiter ausgesetzt, da der Iran als kooperationswillig angesehen wird.

Aus dem aktuellen FATF Statement geht hervor, welche Punkte das iranische Regime aus Sicht der FATF noch erfüllen muss, um von der schwarzen Liste heruntergenommen zu werden. Dazu gehört insbesondere eine Definition von Terrorgruppen, die sich an der UNO-Konvention zur Bekämpfung der Terrorfinanzierung orientieren soll. Das iranische Regime will offenbar durchsetzen, dass von dieser Definition Gruppen ausgenommen werden, die "versuchen, eine fremde Besatzung, Kolonialismus und Rassismus zu beenden" (“attempting to end foreign occupation, colonialism and racism”.) Mit diesen Ausnahmen will das iranische Regime offensichtlich die Unterstützung von terroristischen Gruppen weiter ermöglichen.  

 

 

FATF-Tagung: Der Iran muss auf der schwarzen Liste der Terrorfinanzierer bleiben!

Berlin, 19.2.2018

Seit Sonntag tagt die „Financial Action Task Force“ (FATF), eine internationale Einrichtung zur Bekämpfung von Geldwäsche und Terrorismusfinanzierung. Bei der Tagung geht es auch um den Iran. Dieser gilt als „nicht kooperierendes Hochrisikoland“, da die Terrorfinanzierung des Regimes das internationale Finanzsystem bedroht. [1] Um von der Liste gestrichen zu werden, arbeitet Teheran an einem so genannten „Action Plan“, der Ende Januar 2018 ausgelaufen ist. Die aktuelle Tagung soll die Fortschritte bei der Bekämpfung der Terrorfinanzierung evaluieren.

Der Inhalt des „Action Plan“ ist nicht veröffentlicht worden, es ist aber ausgeschlossen, dass sich das Problem der Terrorfinanzierung lösen lässt. Ali-Akbar Velayati, ehemaliger Außenminister und heute einer der wichtigsten Berater des Obersten geistlichen Führers Ali Khamenei, erklärte im September 2016, es liege nicht im nationalen iranischen Interesse, sich den Vorgaben der FATF zu beugen. Diese richteten sich gegen die „Kampagnen gegen den Zionismus und ihre Unterstützer“ in Palästina und im Libanon sowie gegen die Kämpfer „für den Ruhm des Islams“. Als Beispiel nannte Velayati ausdrücklich die Hisbollah und forderte eine Politik des Widerstands gegen die FATF. [2]

Iranische Regierungsvertreter prahlen immer wieder offen mit der Finanzierung von Terrorgruppen. [3] Auch Hassan Nasrallah, der General-Sekretär der Hisbollah, erklärte: “Das Budget der Hisbollah, seine Gehälter, Ausgaben, Essen, Trinken, Waffen und Raketen kommen aus der Islamischen Republik Iran … Kein Gesetz wird verhindern, dass dieses Geld uns erreicht.” [4]

STOP THE BOMB-Sprecherin Ulrike Becker kommentiert: „Der Iran ist der größte Sponsor von Terrorgruppen weltweit und muss deshalb weiter auf der Liste der nicht-kooperierenden Länder der FATF bleiben. Auch die Strafmaßnahmen gegen Teheran sollten wieder aufgenommen werden. Eine ernsthafte Kooperation des iranischen Regimes im Kampf gegen den internationalen Terrorismus ist eine Illusion. Das Risiko, dass die FATF ihre Glaubwürdigkeit verliert, ist ungleich größer als der Verlust der Schein-Kooperation Teherans. Die FATF riskiert sonst den Verlust jeglichen Einflusses in der Bekämpfung von Geldwäsche und Terrorfinanzierung.“  

Die Listung der FATF ist eines der größten noch bestehenden Hindernisse für Geschäfte mit dem iranischen Regime. Die deutsche Bankenaufsicht Bafin schreibt vor, die Herkunft von Geldern bei Geschäften mit Ländern, die in der Bekämpfung von Terrorfinanzierung nicht kooperieren, genau zu klären. [5] Banken, die Iran-Geschäfte finanzieren, müssen deshalb aufwändige und kostspielige Prüfungen vornehmen, was Geschäfte im großen Stil behindert.

[1] Vgl. Webseite der FATF, www.fatf-gafi.org/countries/; vgl. auch das „public statement“ der FATF v. 24.2.2017, http://www.fatf-gafi.org/publications/high-riskandnon-cooperativejurisdictions/documents/public-statement-february-2017.html.

[2] Velayati challenges FATF saying it does not serve Iran national interest, 4.9.2016, http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82217290/.

[3] Eine Liste von Statements findet sich hier.

[4] “Hassan Nasrallah: Hizbullah’s Money and Missiles Reach Us Directly from Iran, No Law Will Prevent This,” Middle East Media Research Institute, June 24, 2016. https://www.memri.org/tv/hassan-nasrallah-hizbullahs-money-and-missiles-reach-us-directly-iran-no-law-will-prevent/transcript

[5] Vgl. Rundschreiben der Bankenaufsicht Bafin v. 5.4.2016, https://www.bafin.de/SharedDocs/Veroeffentlichungen/DE/Rundschreiben/2016/rs_1602_gw_fatf.html

 

 

 

Statements by Iranian Officials on FATF Compliance

Quelle: Foundation for Defense of Democracies: Risks of Doing Business with Iran, May 2017, p. 31-36.

 

Ali Akbar Velayati, Senior Foreign Policy Adviser to Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei

  • “This agreement [FATF], is not in the country’s expediency. Because he who can continue resistance will be victorious. So if anyone does not stand against these sanctions and shows weakness, he will lose and the other side will be victorious.”[1]
  • “The reason for sanctions on Khatam [Al Anbiya Construction] base or the Qods [Force] was because these are at the frontlines against Zionism and the supporters of Zionist regime. They are at the frontlines of fighting those or those countries that move against Islam. During these past several decades, they were the flagbearers of the fight against Zionism and the supporters of Zionism, and this is the most important issue.” “Our fighters, whether inside Iran, in the region, in Palestine, Lebanon and in total – the chain of resistance will not abandon resistance for the excuse of these sanctions.”
  • “The essence of the Islamic revolution is resistance. As long as resistance continues, the Islamic Republic of Iran’s success will continue. Anytime we are tired of resistance, therefore, victory will cease. Experience shows that the Iranian people and those who obey Iran including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, etc. will not be tired of resistance.” [3]
  • “The goal of international organizations is to deprive the Islamic Republic of Iran from financial capabilities and international economic credit, which is a type of sanction, and limiting the Islamic Republic of Iran and economic activists. We must not obey them.” [4]

  • “We must fight this type of sanctions and limitation, not obey them and move toward them.” [5]

 

Ali Tayyebnia, Iranian Economy Minister

 

  • “We will not allow any international body to access our intelligence. We will not accept definitions and examples of terrorism from any authority except the UN Security Council...and we will not recognize international sanctions on revolutionary individuals and institutions within Iranian territory.” [6]
  • “These sanctions have nothing to do with FATF, even though we do not accept these restrictions and won’t comply with them and we never give the information about them [Iranian institutions] to foreigners.” [7]
  • Iran will “conditionally implement” the Action Plan “according to the constitution.” [8]
  • He admitted that Iran is doing the minimum necessary to get out from under FATF’s de facto sanctions: “Countries have chosen a level for combating money laundering, and for this reason our cooperation with FATF is at the level that we exit sanctions.” [9]

 
Brigadier General Hossein Salami, Deputy Commander of IRGC

  • “As for the IRGC, FATF will not affect it in any way, not even a little, because the IRGC is a legal institution and is in full compliance with the legal criteria of Iran. It is a stable, strong and mighty institution, and has already found ways to tolerate the hostility of the largest enemies. It has experience and knows how to conduct itself. [10]
  • “I am confident that this FATF treaty and convention is a tool by which to monitor our financial turnover and a lever with which to influence us… This issue will absolutely have no impact on the activities of the IRGC because the IRGC is a legal and strong institution and has the conditions [necessary] to combat the great powers and has established its influence far away.” [11]


Ayatollah Sadeq Larijani, Head of Iran’s Judiciary

 

  • "When they ask the foreign minister of America, why do you violate your commitments under the JCPOA, they say we have acted on our commitments and even gone further than they require. However, Iranians must do certain things, such as ceasing their support for terrorists and halting their missile activities. However, what they mean by terrorists are resistance groups like Hezbollah of Lebanon and Hamas in Palestine, which have stood against the violations and crimes of the Zionist regime.” [12]
  • Parliamentarian Farhad Fallahati: “Unfortunately, we do not have a common definition of money laundering with FATF, and until this common definition is attained, we will have a complex path ahead… Should FATF not misguide the [path of] the system’s Revolution, then it appears to be a favorable thing.” [13]
  • Parliamentarian Ahmad Salek:  “The goal of agreements like FATF is to restrain, humiliate, and weaken the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Islamic Revolution… The JCPOA was for controlling the nuclear industry. Where are our centrifuges and where has our enrichment reached today? FATF is for controlling [our] financial affairs and the transfer and movement of money of the Islamic Republic of Iran in order to prevent the supporting of the  oppressed... What has the Supreme Council for Combating Money Laundering which was established in 86 done? 25 billion illicit commodities exist in this country, my main question [thus] is exactly what effect will this have for the nation of Iran which is plagued with unemployment and economic problems, other than influence? The 10th parliament is a revolutionary parliament and will not permit [the imposition of] influence on the country.” [14]
  • Parliamentarian Mohammad-Hossein Nejad reportedly said, “We must wait and see what information FATF wants from Iran, and if it wants this information from the [whole] world. In the articles of this agreement some of [our] military institutions are subject to sanctions. What is more important for us, the IRGC or working with American banks? FATF wants more than the creation of transparency with the Islamic Republic of Iran. It is the extension of influence.” [15]
  • Mohammad Javad Jamali, member of the presiding board of parliament’s National Security and Foreign Policy Commission, said: “If the [FATF] deal is implemented, the security of the Islamic establishment will be threatened.” [16]
  • Gholamreza Kateb, member of the Iranian parliament’s Leadership Board: “Under no circumstances should our national interest be distorted… Americans and Westerners have established this [FATF] system to hurt the forces of resistance to support terrorist groups including DAESH (ISIS). According to the constitution, Iran is obligated to have support for resistance forces under any circumstances. Therefore the Islamic Republic of Iran will not accept any contract or agreement that causes harm to resistance groups such as Lebanese Hezbollah.” [17]
  • Seyyed Javad Abtahi, member of Iranian parliament’s Education and Research Commission: “This contract is a new financial capitulation… There is no reason for us to become the agent of sanctioning legal institutions and persons of our country… Joining this convention can pave the way for the erosion of the independence, security, and authority of the system of the Islamic Republic of  Iran…Compartmentalized documents from the country must not be accessible to the enemies of the Islamic Republic of Iran… With such conventions, the enemies aim to do damage to the forces of resistance, such as Lebanese Hezbollah.” [18]

  • Abbas Araghchi, Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister: “Ceasing support for Hezbollah in return for an [FATF] agreement [is] out of the question.” [19]
  • Ahmad Jannati, head of the Guardian Council: “I do not understand how they could sign this confidential document. I’ve studied both the Persian and English versions and I soon came to the conclusion that they want to give our financial and banking information to the enemy. They want us to sanction ourselves. They want us to sanction the individuals and institutions that the enemy disagrees with. They want us to sanction the IRGC, revolutionary institutions and individuals who sacrificed their own lives to protect the nation for eight years [Iran-Iraq War in 1980-88], and the [IRGC-linked] Khatam al-Anbiya Construction Headquarters that has done lots of services — most of which our people aren’t aware of. How could you do that?” [20]
  •  Mehdi Taghavi, Iranian economics professor: “We should not worry about terrorism and its definition in the West. According to FATF policy, it is in its negotiations with countries that individuals and organizations are listed as terrorists. During such negotiations, Iran will have the opportunity to convince the body to accept its own definition of terrorism to ensure its security.” [21]
  • Valliolah Seif, Governor of the Central Bank of Iran: “No Iranian entity will have financial restrictions put on them,”207 and the Central Bank of Iran will be the only entity determining AML and CFT infractions. [22]lah and Hamas Officials Affirming Iran’s

Support of their Activitie

Hassan Nasrallah, Secretary General of Lebanese Hezbollah

  • “The budget of Hezbollah, its salaries, its expenses, its food, its drink, its weapons, and its missiles come from the Islamic Republic of Iran … No law will be able to prevent this money from reaching us.” [23]
  • Referring to the U.S. law that imposes sanctions on banks that knowingly do business with Hezbollah, Nasrallah said: “As long as Iran has money, we will have money. Can one be more transparent than that? The money allocated for us reaches us directly, not through banks.” [24]

Abdallah Safieddine, Hezbollah’s Representative in Iran

  • Safieddine has told a reporter that the Supreme Leader’s foundations directly fund Hezbollah. [25]

 

Mousa Abu Marzouk, Vice Chairman of Hamas

  •  Abu Marzouk praised Iran for the first time since Hamas left the Syrian capital of Damascus. He said, “The support offered by Iran to the Palestinian resistance — be it in logistics, training or funds — is unmatched and beyond the capabilities of other countries. Iran’s support and backing to the resistance and the Palestinian cause is clear, explicit and equal to the stance of Arab, Muslim and free peoples of the world who back and support the resistance. [26]

 

[1] به صلاح کشور نیست/ خودی ها نباید از نقشه های دشمن تبعیت کنند“ .  FATF توافق (FATF is not in the country’s expediency/we must not obey the enemy’s plans,” Fars News Agency (Iran), July 4, 2016. (http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13950614001034)

[2] به صلاح کشور نیست/ خودی ها نباید از نقشه های دشمن تبعیت کنند“ .  FATF توافق (FATF is not in the country’s expediency/we must not obey the enemy’s plans,” Fars News Agency (Iran), July 4, 2016. (http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13950614001034)

[3] به صلاح کشور نیست/ خودی ها نباید از نقشه های دشمن تبعیت کنند“ .  FATF توافق (FATF is not in the country’s expediency/we must not obey the enemy’s plans,” Fars News Agency (Iran), July 4, 2016. (http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13950614001034)

[4] به صلاح کشور نیست/ خودی ها نباید از نقشه های دشمن تبعیت کنند“ .  FATF توافق (FATF is not in the country’s expediency/we must not obey the enemy’s plans,” Fars News Agency (Iran), July 4, 2016. (www.farsnews.com/newstext.php)

[5] به صلاح کشور نیست/ خودی ها نباید از نقشه های دشمن تبعیت کنند“ .  FATF توافق (FATF is not in the country’s expediency/we must not obey the enemy’s plans,” Fars News Agency (Iran), July 4, 2016. (http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13950614001034)

[6] “Iran sets conditions for joining terror finance taskforce,” Middle East Online (UK), September 27, 2016. (http://www.middle-eastonline.com/english/?id=78917)

[7] Saheb Sadeghi, “Financial watchdog worries Iranian hard-liners,” Al Monitor, September 28, 2016. (http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/09/iran-financial-action-task-force-fatf-debate-wto.html)

[8] “Iran News Round Up,” AEI’s Critical Threats Project, September 7, 2016 (http://www.criticalthreats.org/iran-news-roundseptember-07-2016)

[9] به هیچ کسی اجازه نمی دهیم نام گروه های مقاومت را در کنار تروریست ها قرار دهد“ . (we will not permit anyone to put the names of resistance groups next to terrorists),” Young Journalists Club (Iran), September 27, 2016. (www.yjc.ir/fa/news/ به-هیچ-کسی-اجازه-نمی دهیم-نام-/ 5796129 (گروه های-مقاومت-را-در-کنار-تروریست ها-قرار-دهدهیچ-گونه-اشراف-اطلاعاتی-را-نخواهیم-پذیرفت

[10] Yigal Carmon & A. Savyon, “Khamenei Glorifies IRGC But Does Not Rule Out Adopting Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Standards, Which Harms IRGC, Regarded In The West As A Terror Organization),” Middle East Media Research Institute, September 26, 2016. (http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/9472.htm)

[11] جنگلی از موشک در تونل ها و اماکن خاص برای دشمن آماده کرده ایم“ . (we have created a jungle of missiles in tunnels and special places for the enemy,” Fars News Agency (Iran), September 23, 2016. (www.farsnews.com/newstext.php)

[12] Adam Kredo, “Iran Launches War Drills Amid Accusations U.S. Breaking Nuke Deal,” Washington Free Beacon, October 18, 2016 (http://freebeacon.com/national-security/iran-launches-war-drills-amid-accusations-u-s-breaking-nuke-deal/)

[13] طیب نیا:نمی گذاریم اشراف اطلاعاتی به وجود آید“. (Tayebnia: we will not permit intelligence oversight),” Fars News Agency (Iran), September 27, 2016. (www.farsnews.com/newstext.php)

[14] Adam Kredo, “Iran Launches War Drills Amid Accusations U.S. Breaking Nuke Deal,” Washington Free Beacon, October 18, 2016 (http://freebeacon.com/national-security/iran-launches-war-drills-amid-accusations-u-s-breaking-nuke-deal/)

[15] مصداق نفوذ و سوپر برجام است“. FATF (FATF is the basis of infiltration and super JCPOA), Mehr News Agency (Iran), September 28, 2016 (www.mehrnews.com/news/3778450/FATF- (مصداق-نفوذ-و-سوپر-برجام-است

[16] “FATF Deal against Iran’s National Security: MP,” Iran Front Page (Iran), September 6, 2016. (http://ifpnews.com/news/business/money-finances/2016/09/fatf-deal-irans-national-security-mp/)

[17] مجلس با هر توافقی که امنیت نظام را ب هخطر بیندازد مخالف است“. (the parliament opposes any agreement that endangers national security),” Tasnim News Agency (Iran), September 16, 2016. (https://www.tasnimnews.com/fa/news/1395/06/26/ مجلس-با-هر-توافقی-که-امنیت-/ 1187774 (نظام-را-به-خطر-بیندازد-مخالف-است)

[18] ضریب امنیتی کشور را کاهش می دهد“.  “FATF" FATF reduces the country's security, Tasnim News Agency, September 16, 2016. (https://www.tasnimnews.com/fa/news/1395/06/26/1187771/fatf- (ضریب-امنیتی-کشور-را-کاهش-می-دهدجلوی این کار گرفته می شود و امضای خود را پس می گیرند“ . 204 :FATF آی تالله جنتی در مخالفت با (Ahmad Jannati in opposing FATF: this should be stopped and they should retract signature),” ANA (Iran), September 10, 2016. (http://www.ana.ir/news/139759)

[19] Saheb Sadeghi, “Financial watchdog worries Iranian hard-liners,” Al Monitor, September 28, 2016. (http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/09/iran-financial-action-task-force-fatf-debate-wto.html)

[20] Saheb Sadeghi, “Financial watchdog worries Iranian hard-liners,” Al Monitor, September 28, 2016. (http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/09/iran-financial-action-task-force-fatf-debate-wto.html)

[21] “Anti-money-laundering agreement sparks fight between Iranian factions,” BNE Intellinews, September 13, 2016. (http://www.intellinews.com/anti-money-laundering-agreement-sparks-fight-between-iranian-factions-105935/)

[22] “CBI to protect clients’ banking info in FATF exchange,” Press TV (Iran), July 6, 2016. (http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2016/07/06/473823/Iran-protects-banking-info)

[23] “Hassan Nasrallah: Hizbullah’s Money and Missiles Reach Us Directly from Iran, No Law Will Prevent This,” Middle East Media Research Institute, June 24, 2016. (https://www.memri.org/tv/hassan-nasrallah-hizbullahs-money-and-missiles-reach-us-directly-iranno-law-will-prevent/transcript)

[24] “Hassan Nasrallah: Hizbullah’s Money and Missiles Reach Us Directly from Iran, No Law Will Prevent This,” Middle East Media Research Institute, June 24, 2016. (https://www.memri.org/tv/hassan-nasrallah-hizbullahs-money-and-missiles-reach-us-directly-iranno-law-will-prevent/transcript)

[25] Amall Saad-Ghorayeb, "Hezbollah’s Iran Money Trail: It's Complicated", Al Akhbar, July 31, 2012. (english.al-akhbar.com/content/hezbollahs-iran-money-trail-its-complicated)

[26] Hazem Balousha, "Why Hamas resumed ties with Iran", Al Monitor, June 29, 2016  (www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/06/gaza-hamas-resume-relations-iran.html)

 

Links 

Foundation for Defense of Democracies: Risks of doing business with Iran (Mai 2017)

Washington Institute: Katherine Bauer: Iran Faces Challenges in Implementing Its FATF Action Plan (Oktober 2016)

Statement der FATF (23.2.2018)